Under the Kyoto Protocol, 37 industrialized countries and the European Community (the 15-member European Union-15 at the time of the Kyoto negotiations) are committed to binding greenhouse gas emission targets. [29] The targets apply to the four greenhouse gases of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and two groups of gas, fluorocarbons (HFC) and hydrofluorocarbons (PFCs). [32] The six GHGs are converted to CO2 equivalents to determine emission reductions. [33] These reduction targets are in addition to industrial gases, chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs treated under the 1987 Montreal Protocol on ozone-depleting substances. New Zealand`s climate minister, Tim Groser, said the 15-year-old Kyoto Protocol was obsolete and New Zealand was “ahead” in finding a replacement for developing countries. [149] Non-profit environmental organizations such as the World Wildlife Fund have criticized New Zealand`s decision to withdraw. [150] When George W. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000, U.S. Senator Chuck Hagel asked him what form his administration was in dealing with climate change. Bush responded that he “takes climate change very seriously”,[101] but that he was against the Kyoto Treaty because it would “exclude 80 percent of the world, including major population centers like China and India, from complying with the rules and would cause serious damage to the U.S. economy.” [102] The Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research reported in 2001 that emission limits do not contain emissions from international aviation and shipping. [37] Although Belarus and Turkey are included in Schedule I of the agreement, they do not have emission targets since they were not parties to Schedule I at the time of the adoption of the protocol. [36] Kazakhstan has no objective, but has stated that it wishes to become a contracting party to Schedule I of the Convention.

[38] Article 25 of the Protocol states that the protocol “enters into force on the 90th day following the day when no less than 55 parties to the convention, including the Schedule I parties, which account for at least 55% of the total carbon dioxide emissions of Schedule I countries, have tabled their ratification instruments. Acceptance, approval or membership. [94] In order to contribute to the objectives of the agreement, countries presented comprehensive national plans to combat climate change (nationally defined contributions, NDC).