For the above reasons, 2010 was selected as the appropriate reference year for the scenario described in this chapter. Data for additional years are also available. Map 1 shows the share of developing countries in world exports of trade goods and services exports by country. China is an important player in international trade as a producer and exporter of consumer goods and a major supplier of intermediate supplies to manufacturing companies around the world. Today, about 20% of the world`s trade in intermediate manufactured products comes from China (compared to 4% in 2002). UNCTAD (2020d) analysed the UN comtrade dataset for approximately 200 countries and 13 production sectors to measure the integration of each country and industry into the Chinese economy using the GLIGrubel-Lloyd Index (GLI) calculated on products classified as intermediate manufacturing products (e.g. B parts and components), calculated at the sectoral level (as defined in the classification of 4-digit harmonized systems), and then aggregated at the sectoral level with the help of bilateral trade parties. intra-company trade. WBG`s overall, regional and transnational trade commitments have increased trade competitiveness, predictability of trade operations, reduced large numbers of trade costs, opened and created markets, and prioritized inclusive trade integration. The most remarkable results of the IRD`s operations are that strategies that open an economy to trade and investment with the rest of the world are necessary for sustainable economic growth. The evidence is clear. No country has had economic success in recent decades in terms of significantly increasing the standard of living of its population without being open to the rest of the world.

On the other hand, open trade (as well as openness to foreign direct investment) has been an important element of The economic success of East Asia, where average import duties have increased from 30% to 10% over the past 20 years. Free trade allows developing countries to fill gaps in their production processes. Individual citizens may also travel abroad to improve training or experience of certain production or business methods. These people can then report important information on improving the country`s production processes. A better solution than protectionism is to include rules in trade agreements that protect against inconvenience. Bosnia and Herzegovina: a banking operation supported reforms to facilitate cross-border trade. The project has helped streamline government processes for issuing export import licences, simplifying approvals and reducing licensing costs. The completion of the project saved businesses $1.26 million in compliance costs, a reduction of approximately 4%.